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The Union Public Service Commission (U.P.S.C.) conducts Civil Services' Examination once a year in two stages. The Preliminary Examination (Objective Type) for selection of candidates for the Main Examination is held in the month of May.

The Civil Services Main Examination
 is held in the months of October/November. Blank application forms and other particulars are published in the Employment News, generally in the month of December.

The last date for the submission of applications to the Secretary, Union Public Service Commission, Dholpur House, Shahjahan Road, NewDelhi-11001 1 is usually the last week of January of the year of examination.

The Combined Civil Services Examination is conducted for Recruitment to the following Services/Posts:

1. Indian Administrative Service.
2. Indian Foreign Service.
3. Indian Police Service.
4. Indian P & T Accounts & Finance Service, Group 'A'.
5. Indian Audit and Accounts Service, Group 'A'.
6. Indian Customs and Central Excise Service, Group 'A'.
7. Indian Defence Accounts Service, Group `A'.
8. Indian Revenue Service, Group 'A'.
9. Indian Ordnance Factories Service, Group `A' (Assistant Manager, Non-technical)
10. Indian Postal Service, Group `A'.
11. Indian Civil Accounts Service, Group `A'.
12. Indian Railway Traffic Service, Group 'A'.
13. Indian Railway Accounts Service, Group `A'.
14. Indian Railway Personnel Service, Group 'A'.
15. Posts of Assistant Security Officer, Group `A' in Railway Protection Force.
16. Indian Defence Estates Service, Group `A'.
17. Indian Information Service (Junior Grade), Group `A'.
18. Indian Trade Service, Group `A' (Grade III).
19. Posts of Assistant Commandant, Group' A' in the Central Industrial Security Force.
20. Posts of Deputy Superintendent of Police, Group `A' in the Central Bureau of      Investigation.
21. Central Secretariat Service, Group `B' (Section Officers Grade).
22. Railway Board Secretariat Service, Group `B' (Section Officers Grade).
23. Armed Forces Headquarters Civil Service, Group `B' [Assistant Civilian Staff Officers      Grade).
24. Customs Appraisers' Service, Group `B'.
25. Delhi and Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Daman & Diu and Dadar & Nagar      Haveli Civil Service, Group 'B'.
26. Pondicherry Civil Service, Group `B'.

Number of Chances: Every candidate, appearing in the examination, who is otherwise eligible, shall be permitted four chances at the examination.


A candidate must have attained the age of 21 years and must not have attained the age of 28 years on the 1st August of the year in which examination is being held.
The upper age limit may be relaxed in respect of the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes and such other categories of persons as may from time to time be notified in this behalf by the Government of India to the extent and subject to the conditions notified in respect of each category.

Educational Qualifications: 

A candidate must hold a degree of any of the Universities (any division) incorporated by an Act of the Central or State Legislature in India or other Educational Institutions established by an Act of Parliament or declared to be deemed as a University under Section 3 of the University Grants Commission Act, 1956, or possess an equivalent qualification.
A candidate who has appeared or intends to appear at an examination passing of which would render him eligible to appear at this examination, but has not been informed of the result, may also apply for admission to the examination.

Examination Fee: Rs. 40/- (Rupees Forty only). No fee for Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, etc. Fee should be paid through Central Recruitment Fee Stamps only.

Plan of the Examination:
 The Civil Services Examination comprises two successive stages:

1. Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination (Objective type) for the selection of candidates for Main Examination,

2. Civil Services (Main) Examination (Written and Interview) for the selection of candidates for the various services and posts. 

The Preliminary Examination: 

It will consist of two papers of Objective Type (multiple-choice questions) and carry a maximum of 450 marks. This examination is meant to serve as a screening test only; the marks obtained in the Preliminary Examination by the candidates who are declared qualified for admission to the Main Examination will not be counted for determining their final order of merit.

The number of candidates to be admitted to the Main Examination will be about twelve to thirteen times the total approximate number of vacancies to be filled in the year in the various Services and Posts.

Only those candidates, who are declared by the Commission to have qualified in the Preliminary Examination in a year will be eligible for admission to the Main Examination of that year, provided they are otherwise eligible for admission to the Main Examination.

The Preliminary Examination will consist of two papers: 

Paper I- General Studies 150 marks
Paper II- One subject to be selected
from the list of Optional
subjects set out in Para 9
below 300 marks
Total 450 marks

List of Optional Subjects for Preliminary Examination:

 1. Agriculture
 2. Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science
 3. Botany
 4. Chemistry
 5. Civil Engineering
 6. Commerce
 7. Economics
 8. Electrical Engineering
 9. Geography
10. Geology
11. Indian History
12. Law
13. Mathematics
14. Mechanical Engineering
15. Medical Science
16. Philosophy
17. Physics
18. Political Science
19. Psychology
20. Public Administration
21. Sociology
22. Statistics
23. Zoology

Note: Both the question papers in the Prelim Test will be of the Objective Type (multiple-choice questions).
The question papers will be set both in Hindi and English.
The course content of the syllabi for the optional subjects will be of the degree level.
Each paper will be of two hours' duration.

Main Examination:
 The written examination will consist of the following papers:

Paper I One of the Indian Languages 300 marks
to be selected by the candidates from
the Languages included in the Eighth
Schedule to the Constitution
Paper II English 300 marks
Paper III Essay 200 marks
Papers IV&V General Studies 300 marks for each paper
Papers VI Any two subjects to be selected 300 marks
VII, VIII from the list of Optional for each paper
and IX subjects set out in Para 2 below.

Each subject will have two papers Interview Test will carry 300 marks.

Note: The papers on Indian Languages and English will be of Matriculation or equivalent standard and will be of qualifying nature; the marks obtained in these papers will not be counted for ranking.
The papers on Essay, General Studies and Optional Subjects. Of only such candidates will be evaluated as attain such minimum standard as may be fixed by the Commission in their discretion for the qualifying papers on Indian Language and English.
The Paper I of Indian Languages will not, however, be compulsory for candidates hailing from the North-Eastern States of Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland and also for candidates hailing from the State of Sikkim.

For the Language Papers, the script to be used by candidates will be as under:

Language Script
Assamese Assamese
Bengali Bengali
Gujarati Gujarati
Hindi Devanagari
Kannada Kannada
Kashmiri Persian
Konkani Devanagari
Malayalam Malayalam
Manipuri Bengali
Marathi Devanagari
Nepali Devanagari
Oriya Oriya
Punjabi Gurumukhi
Sanskrit Devanagari
Sindhi Devanagari or Arabic
Tamil Tamil
Telugu Telugu
Urdu Persian


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Agricultural Research Service

 Eligibility Test/ Senior Research Fellowship Examination 

The Agricultural Scientists Recruitment Board (ASRB)
 holds a Competitive Examination for recruiting Scientists of the ARS in the pay scale of Rs. 8,000-13,500 in the ICAR Institutes, combined with National Eligibility Test (NET) for recruitment of Lecturers and Assistant Professors by the State Agricultural Universities (SAUS) and for award of ICAR Senior Research Fellowships.

The selected candidates for Agricultural Research Service must serve in the institutes to which they are posted until they find appointment for higher positions through selection at other institutes.

(i) Candidates successful in ARS are appointed as Scientists in the Indian Council of Agricultural Research in the pay scale of Rs. 8,000-13,500.

(ii) Candidates clearing the National Eligibility Test are recommended to various State Agricultural Universities who will consider them for appointment as Lecturers or Assistant Professors after assessing their suitability through interview or such other tests as may be devised by the SAU concerned. Eligibility certificates are issued to these candidates by the ASRB to enable them to apply for vacancies to be notified or advertised by the SAUs.

(iii) For Senior Research Fellowship of ICAR, the Education Division prepares a merit list based on the following criteria:

(a) 60% marks for written examination
(b) 20% marks for Academic performance
(c) 20% marks for Viva-voce.

Note: The ASRB may increase or decrease the number of examination centers according to requirement. Candidates must select the examination center carefully. No request for change of center is entertained.

The number of candidates called for Viva-Voce is in the ratio of 1:5. The selection of candidates for Viva-Voce is made on the basis of marks obtained in the written examination and weightage is given to marks obtained by the candidate in Intermediate, Graduate and Post-graduate examinations.

Qualifications: Master's degree or equivalent with good academic record in the concerned subject.

Agricultural Research Service and National Eligibility Test:

(i) Ph.D, with at least a (II div) Master's degree (50%). OR
(ii) A candidate without a Ph.D degree should possess at least a high II div. Master's degree (55% and above) and I1 div. Bachelor's degree (50%).

Senior Research Fellowship Examination: The candidate must possess a high Second Class Master's degree (55% and above or equivalent OGPA) in the concerned discipline.


(a) Agricultural Research Service
21-30 yrs. on August 1. In-service candidates of ICAR/State Agricultural Universities less than 35 years in age are also eligible to appear subject to possession of prescribed qualifications.

(b) National Eligibility Test
21 years on August 1. No upper age limit.

(c) Senior Research Fellowship
21-30 yrs on August 1. In-service candidates of ICAR/State Agricultural Universities less than 45 years in age are also eligible to appear subject to possession of prescribed qualifications.

(d) The upper age limit is also relaxable for:

(i) SC or ST candidates upto a maximum of five years.
(ii) Other bonafide displaced persons/repatriates of Indian origin/Defense Services personnel/Border Security Force personnel etc. as per Government of India rules.

Subjects for Examination

Three papers in the written examination:
Subject Marks
1. General Knowledge
2. Professional Paper 1
3. Professional Paper 2
3 hrs.
3 hrs.
3 hrs.

Successful candidates are called for an Interview.

Apply to: Secretary, Agricultural Scientists Recruitment Board, Krishi Anusandhan Bhavan, Pusa, New Delhi-110012, on the prescribed application form.

Examination Centers: Anand, Bangalore, Bombay, Calcutta, Coimbatore, Cuttack, DehraDun, Delhi, Hissar, Hyderabad, Indore, Jabalpur, Jodhpur, Karnal, Lucknow, Ludhiana, Madras, Nagpur, Palampur, Port Blair, Ranchi, Shillong, Trivandrum, Varanasi.

Examination Fee:
 SC/ST candidates: Nil. 

 Rs. 100/-.

What Questions to ask the HR

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Few questions you should ask the HR :
  • What kinds of assignments might I expect the first six months on the job?
  • How often are performance reviews given?
  • Please describe the duties of the job for me.
  • What products (or services) are in the development stage now?
  • Do you have plans for expansion?
  • What are your growth projections for next year?
  • Have you cut your staff in the last three years?
  • Are salary adjustments geared to the cost of living or job performance?
  • Does your company encourage further education?
  • How do you feel about creativity and individuality?
  • Do you offer flextime?
  • What is the usual promotional time frame?
  • Does your company offer either single or dual career-track programs?
  • What do you like best about your job/company?
  • Once the probation period is completed, how much authority will I have over decisions?
  • Has there been much turnover in this job area?
  • Do you fill positions from the outside or promote from within first?
  • Is your company environmentally conscious? In what ways?
  • In what ways is a career with your company better than one with your competitors?
  • Is this a new position or am I replacing someone?
  • What is the largest single problem facing your staff (department) now?
  • May I talk with the last person who held this position?
  • What qualities are you looking for in the candidate who fills this position?
  • What skills are especially important for someone in this position?
  • What characteristics do the achievers in this company seem to share?
  • Who was the last person that filled this position, what made them successful at it, where are they today, and how may I contact them?
  • Is there a lot of team/project work?
  • Will I have the opportunity to work on special projects?
  • Where does this position fit into the organizational structure?
  • How much travel, if any, is involved in this position?
  • What is the next course of action? When should I expect to hear from you or should I contact you?
Feel free to add more in comments section!! :)

Predict the output or error(s) for the following:

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1. void main(){
int const * p=5;

Compiler error: Cannot modify a constant value.
p is a pointer to a "constant integer". But we tried tochange the value of the "constant integer".

2. main() {
 char s[ ]="man";
int i;
 for(i=0;s[ i ];i++)

s[i], *(i+s), *(s+i), i[s] are all different ways of expressing the same idea. Generally array name is the
base address for that array. Here s is the base address. i is the index number/displacement from the base address. So, indirecting it with * is same as s[i]. i[s] may be surprising. But in the case of C it is same as s[i].

3. main(){
 float me = 1.1;
 double you = 1.1;
printf("I love U");
printf("I hate U");

I hate U
For floating point numbers (float, double, long double) the values cannot be predicted exactly. Depending on the number of bytes, the precession with of the value represented varies. Float takes 4 bytes and long double takes 10 bytes. So float stores 0.9 with less precision than long double.
Rule of Thumb:
Never compare or at-least be cautious when using floating point numbers with relational operators (== , >, <, <=, >=,!= ) .

4. main() {
 static int var = 5;
printf("%d ",var--);

5 4 3 2 1
When static storage class is given, it is initialized once. The change in the value of a static variable is retained even between the function calls. Main is also treated like any other ordinary function, which can be called recursively.

5. main() {
int c[ ]={2.8,3.4,4,6.7,5};
int j,*p=c,*q=c;
for(j=0;j<5;j++) {
printf(" %d ",*c);
 ++q; }
for(j=0;j<5;j++){printf(" %d ",*p);
++p; }

 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 4 6 5
Initially pointer c is assigned to both p and q. In the first loop, since only q is incremented and not c , the value 2 will be printed 5 times. In second loop p itself is incremented. So the values 2 3 4 6 5 will be printed.

How do I "get" a null pointer in my programs?

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Answer: According to the language definition, a constant 0 in a pointer context is converted into a null pointer at compile time. That is, in an initialization, assignment, or comparison when one side is a variable or expression of pointer type, the compiler can tell that a constant 0 on the other side requests a null pointer, and generate the correctly-typed null pointer value. Therefore, the following fragments are perfectly legal:

char *p = 0;
if(p != 0)

However, an argument being passed to a function is not necessarily recognizable as a pointer context, and the compiler may not be able to tell that an unadorned 0 "means" a null pointer. For instance, the Unix system call "execl" takes a variable-length, null-pointer-terminated list of character pointer arguments. To generate a null pointer in a function call context, an explicit cast is typically required:

execl("/bin/sh", "sh", "-c", "ls", (char *)0);

If the (char *) cast were omitted, the compiler would not know to pass a null pointer, and would pass an integer 0 instead. (Note that many Unix manuals get this example wrong.)

When function prototypes are in scope, argument passing becomes an "assignment context," and most casts may safely be omitted, since the prototype tells the compiler that a pointer is required, and of which type, enabling it to correctly cast unadorned 0's. Function prototypes cannot provide the types for variable arguments in variable-length argument lists, however, so explicit casts are still  required for those arguments. It is safest always to cast null pointer function arguments, to guard against varargs functions or those without prototypes, to allow interim use of non-ANSI compilers, and to demonstrate that you know what you are doing.

Unadorned 0 okay: Explicit cast required:
initialization function call, no prototype in scope assignment variable argument in comparison arargs function call, prototype in scope, fixed argument

References: K&R I Sec. A7.7 p. 190, Sec. A7.14 p. 192; K&R II
Sec. A7.10 p. 207, Sec. A7.17 p. 209; H&S Sec. 4.6.3 p. 72; ANSI
Sec. .

What is this infamous null pointer, anyway?

No comments :
Answer: The language definition states that for each pointer type, there is a special value -- the "null pointer" -- which is distinguishable from all other pointer values and which is not the address of any object. That is, the address-of operator & will never yield a null pointer, nor will a successful call to malloc. (malloc returns a null pointer when it fails, and this is a typical use of null pointers: as a "special" pointer value with some other meaning, usually "not allocated" or "not pointing anywhere yet.")

A null pointer is conceptually different from an uninitialized pointer. A null pointer is known not to point to any object; an uninitialized pointer might point anywhere. See also questions 49, 55, and 85.

As mentioned in the definition above, there is a null pointer for each pointer type, and the internal values of null pointers for different types may be different. Although programmers need not know the internal values, the compiler must always be informed which type of null pointer is required, so it can make the distinction if necessary (see below).

References: K&R I Sec. 5.4 pp. 97-8; K&R II Sec. 5.4 p. 102; H&S
Sec. 5.3 p. 91; ANSI Sec. p. 38.