Basic Syntax of IF - ELSE Statement in C , C++ with example

Basic If Syntax

The structure of an if statement is as follows:
if ( statement is TRUE )
    Execute this line of code
Here is a simple example that shows the syntax:
if ( 5 < 10 )
    printf( "Five is now less than ten, that's a big surprise" );

Here, we're just evaluating the statement, "is five less than ten", to see if it is true or not; with any luck, it's not! If you want, you can write your own full program including stdio.h and put this in the main function and run it to test.

To have more than one statement execute after an if statement that evaluates to true, use braces, like we did with the body of the main function. Anything inside braces is called a compound statement, or a block. When using if statements, the code that depends on the if statement is called the "body" of the if statement.

For example:
if ( TRUE ) {
  /* between the braces is the body of the if statement */
  Execute all statements inside the body
}
I recommend always putting braces following if statements. If you do this, you never have to remember to put them in when you want more than one statement to be executed, and you make the body of the if statement more visually clear.

Else

Sometimes when the condition in an if statement evaluates to false, it would be nice to execute some code instead of the code executed when the statement evaluates to true. The "else" statement effectively says that whatever code after it (whether a single line or code between brackets) is executed if the if statement is FALSE.

It can look like this:
if ( TRUE ) {
  /* Execute these statements if TRUE */
}
else {
  /* Execute these statements if FALSE */
}

Else if

Another use of else is when there are multiple conditional statements that may all evaluate to true, yet you want only one if statement's body to execute. You can use an "else if" statement following an if statement and its body; that way, if the first statement is true, the "else if" will be ignored, but if the if statement is false, it will then check the condition for the else if statement. If the if statement was true the else statement will not be checked. It is possible to use numerous else if statements to ensure that only one block of code is executed.

Let's look at a simple program for you to try out on your own.
#include <stdio.h> 

int main()                            /* Most important part of the program!
*/
{
    int age;                          /* Need a variable... */
  
    printf( "Please enter your age" );  /* Asks for age */
    scanf( "%d", &age );                 /* The input is put in age */
    if ( age < 100 ) {                  /* If the age is less than 100 */
     printf ("You are pretty young!\n" ); /* Just to show you it works... */
  }
  else if ( age == 100 ) {            /* I use else just to show an example */ 
     printf( "You are old\n" );       
  }
  else {
    printf( "You are really old\n" );     /* Executed if no other statement is
    */
  }
  return 0;
}

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10th 3i InfoTech Academic Books Accenture ACIO ActiveX ADT Agricultural AIEEE Air Force Algebraic Amdocs Android Answers Application Development Aptitude Aptitude Questions Architectures ASP ATOS B.Sc B.Tech.B.E. Bank Exam BCA BE Board Exam Books break-continue Business Plan C C Programming C# C++ Campus campus interview Candidate profile Capgemini Career CDS Certification CET Challenge Circle Cisco class code Cognizant communication Company Company Profile Competitive Exams computer Computer Networks concentric circles constructor Course Credit Suisse CSS CTS Data Structure DBMS DC Deloitte difficult interview questions dimensions Distributed Computing do while dotNet Download ds Dynamic Web Development e-Admit card Educational engineering entertainment Even Odd Events exam schedule exception for loop fresher GATE general Discussion general knowledge Get Placed Government Job Hall Ticket HCL how to answer How to Prepare HR HR Interview HSC hypertext preprocessor IB IBM IBPS IIT Indian Army Information infosys Intelligence Bureau Internship interview Experience interview questions Interview Tips IntroC IntroC# IntroJava IntroPHP IT J2EE J2ME Java JavaScript jobs Language Books Language Tutorial Languages limit number of objectsJava Limit the number of objects being created in JAVA Linux Linux Administrator Linux Developer Logical Questions loops M Tech M.E. M.Tech M.Tech AND B.Tech Management Management Skills Matrices MBA mca ME microsoft mistakes Mixture Mobile Computing mock questions mock test MySql naukri NDA OOP opening Operating System Oracle paper Persistent PHP php programming php string variables PL/SQL Placement placement guide Placement Paper Placement Process preparing for placement presentation probability Problems Professional program Programming Project Engineer project idea Projects Puzzle qualities Question of the day Questions Quiz Question Recruitment Recruitment Pattern Requirement Result Resume Reviews Screen Sizes Scripting Session Skills Software Software Engineering solved papers Source Code Speed time and distance SQL SSC story Stress Interview Study Material study tips submit resume Synonym TCS Tech Mahindra tech news Technical Books Technical Interview Testing thank you letter Thought Time Table TutC++ Unix questions asked in aptitude and inteviews for MCA UPSC verbal Web Designing Web Developer Website Development What to read while loop Wipro Writing Resume